If you are thinking about having sex for the first time or you already are having sex, you should know about preventing pregnancy. Although most methods depend on the girl to do or take something, it is important for guys to understand what is involved so that they can support their girlfriends. Also, don't forget that condoms are the only birth control method that can prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
The only way to prevent pregnancy that is 100% effective is not to have sex. If you have sexual intercourse, there is always some risk of pregnancy.
Holding hands, hugging, touching, and kissing do not cause pregnancy. Having sexual intercourse can be a very loving and special experience between two people. However, you should think about several important issues before you decide to have sex. Besides pregnancy, you could get a sexually transmitted disease, and you also can get hurt emotionally if your partner stops caring for you.
Decide ahead of time what is right for you. Find an adult you can talk to about your feelings and thoughts. Although it’s sometimes awkward to start the conversation, you should think about talking with your parents. You might also speak with your healthcare provider, school counselors, teachers, or adult relatives. You can usually discuss issues with these adults confidentially.
Hormone medicines are birth control medicines for women. They use manmade forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone. The hormones stop a woman's ovaries from releasing an egg each month. They also make it harder for sperm to get into the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to stay in the uterus.
You need to see your healthcare provider to get any of these hormonal forms of birth control.
Birth Control Devices
Most birth control devices provide barriers that stop sperm from getting into the uterus. The barrier may be physical or chemical.
You can buy condoms, spermicides, and sponges at drug and grocery stores without a prescription. Diaphragms and cervical caps need to be fitted by a healthcare provider. IUDs must be put into the uterus by a healthcare provider.
Sterilization is a procedure done to close the tubes that carry the sperm or eggs. It may be done with surgery through your belly or with special devices inserted through the vagina and into the fallopian tubes. A woman or man who is sterilized will no longer be able to have children. The procedure is usually a permanent method of birth control. It’s very rare to have this procedure if you are younger than 21 years old or if you have no children.
Surgery to remove a woman’s uterus (hysterectomy) also causes sterility.
Natural Family Planning and the Withdrawal Method
The natural family planning methods of birth control don’t use any devices, drugs, or surgery. To prevent pregnancy you avoid having sex on certain days of each menstrual cycle. Some of the other methods of birth control are usually more reliable.
The withdrawal method involves taking the penis out of the vagina before semen starts coming out of the penis. Often sperm get into the vagina before or during withdrawal. Withdrawal is NOT a reliable way to prevent pregnancy.
Emergency Birth Control
There are pills that can be taken for emergency birth control. The pills contain a hormone that will prevent pregnancy if a woman takes them very soon after she has unprotected sex. A woman might take these pills if a condom breaks, or if she had sex without any birth control. Depending on the type of medicine in the pills, the pills need to be taken no later than 72 to 120 hours (3 to 5 days) after sex. You can buy some types of emergency birth control pills without a prescription. Carefully follow the package instructions or your healthcare provider's directions for taking the pills.
A copper intrauterine device (IUD) is another way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. The IUD must be put into the uterus by a healthcare provider within 5 days after sex.
Sterilization, the IUD, and hormone medicines, such as birth control pills, are the most effective methods of birth control. However, the diaphragm and condom can be nearly as reliable if they are used correctly.